Mato Grosso, in midwestern Brazil, is home to the section of rainforest that lured explorer Percy Fawcett to his mysterious end. President Theodore Roosevelt expeditioned in Mato Grosso and the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss conducted some of his best field work in the region. The name, literally, means 'dense forest.' Today, sadly, Mato Grosso is home to some of the most rampant deforestation on Earth, with land being cleared for both cattle pasture and, increasingly, soy cultivation. The satellite images above compare the extent of forest clearings for agriculture in one area of Mato Grosso, from 2001 to 2006.