Toxic Tar Sands: Indiana
Carolyn Marsh's house in Whiting, Indiana, just southeast of Chicago, sits within walking distance of both Lake
Michigan and the BP Whiting Refinery. One is beautiful and the other, Marsh says, looks like "a death trap zone." Now BP is pushing to expand the capacity of its refinery to process tar sands crude.
The synthetic heavy crude produced from tar sands is laden with more toxins than conventional oil. If the expansion goes through, people like Marsh, who live in the shadow of these refineries, will face increased exposure to heavy metals, sulfur, and carcinogens like benzene.
After learning of BP's plans to pump tar sands pollution into the air and her community, Marsh was galvanized to action. She joined a legal challenge to the oil giant's air permit.
Marsh believes BP's permit application dramatically underestimates the potential air pollution from their tar sands expansion. The company understated the amount of toxic gases vented from flares, claiming they would only be released occasionally. But flaring will only increase as the refinery handles more of the world's dirtiest oil.
Flaring is only one part of the refinery's massive polluting process, and air pollution is not the only threat that Marsh fears from the tar sands expansion.
"We don't want Lake Michigan to become another oil industry sacrifice zone. Quality of life here in Indiana should not suffer for foreign oil profits."
Lake Michigan, which provides drinking water for 10 million people, will be exposed to new levels of contamination from particulate emissions and huge increases in ammonia and other discharges into the water from the refinery's tar sands expansion.
The refinery is already one of the largest sources of mercury pollution in Lake Michigan. Mercury is a
potent neurotoxin that causes severe fetal damage, impaired motor function, and kidney and respiratory damage in humans.
Tar sands crude spells disaster for clean water in every step of its life cycle. If tar sands operations continue to expand in America, Lake Michigan will be exposed to the same types of contamination spreading through the once pristine water sources along the Athabasca River in Alberta, where tar sands are mined.
A recent study published by leading Canadian scientists found elevated concentrations of toxic heavy metals including arsenic,
lead and mercury around and downstream from tar sands mining operations, suggesting a strong correlation between tar sands
mining and toxic discharges to water resources.These poisonous impurities are released in refining as well, and discharges from
BP's tar sands expansion will bring the pollution of the Athabasca directly to Lake Michigan.
Marsh believes the citizen struggle to stop the tar sands expansion is her community's best line of defense, and she has committed to the fight. She has little faith in state regulators, whom she believes are too complicit with toxic conditions created by BP's refinery. Marsh knows what's at stake.
"We don't want Lake Michigan to become another oil industry sacrifice zone. Quality of life here in Indiana should not suffer for
foreign oil profits," she says.
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