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William E. Colby Memorial Library
Sierra Club Bulletin--Subject Index, M-P

M N O P

The italicized number is the volume number, following number(s) are the page number(s).

M

McAdie, Mt., 5, 317; 14, 86; 18, 133; 26, 117; ill., 7, 147

McArthur, Lake (Canada), ill., 8, 185

McCabe Lake, ill., 18, 71

McClure, Mt., see Maclure, Mt.

McClure Glacier, see Maclure Glacier

McClure Lake, 12, 57

McClure Meadow, 12, 57; ill., 11, 137

McClure 's Pass, map, 1, 173

McCormick, Mt. (Canada), 33, 125

McDermott, Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 36, 45

McDonald, Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 7, 225, 228-229; 23, 110; 30, 46-47

McDonald Peak (Canada), ill., 13, 9

McGee, Mt., 16, 104; 19, 93; 27, 101; ill., 12, 181

McGee Lake trail, 25, 113

McGonagall Pass (Mt. McKinley N. P.), 18, 81; ill., 18, 83

" Machete, " The, (Pinnacles National Monument), 25, 130-131; ill., 25, 102-103

McKinley, Mt. (Mt. McKinley N. P., Alaska), 6, 280; 18, 81-87; 28, 1-35; 30, 95; 34, 95-109; first ascent, 1913, 18, 82; first ascent of North Peak by " Sourdough" party, 1910, 18, 81-82; 34, 99-106; second ascent, 1932, 18, 81-87; ascent claimed by Dr. Cook, 1906, 6, 280; 34, 97-98; bibliography, 34, 109; discovery and exploration, 34, 95-97; Dr. Cook's false summit, 34, 107; ill., 34, 95; origin of name, 18, 81; 34, 96; " Sourdough" party, 18, 81-82; 34, 99-106; ill., 34, 94-95; temperature, 18, 83-84; war equipment testing expedition, 28, 1-35; ill., 18, 82, 83, 86, 87; 28, 30-31; 34, 94-95; see also Karstens Ridge; Mount McKinley N. P.; Muldrow Glacier

McKinley grove, 10, 296

McKinney 's, 1, 317

McLean 's Spring, 24, 80, 101

McLoughlin, Mt., ill., 17, 51

Maclure, Mt., 12, 56; 20, 104; ill., 3, 326; 5, 23; 7, 94, 95; 9, 250; 10, 231; 11, 410; 17, 22; 20, 104; 29, 46-47; routes of ascent, ill., 20, 104

Maclure Glacier, ill., 5, 23; 17, 22

Macomb Ridge, 12, 56

Madary's Pass, 1, 195; ill., 1, 196; see also Harrison 's Pass

Magic Circle, 11, 275-283

Magpie, 4, 134-135; ill., 4, 134

Mahogany, Mountain (Cercocarpus parvifolius), 3, 308

Malaspina Glacier (Alaska), 2, 134-141

Malheur Lake Bird Sanctuary, 11, 95

Mallory, Mt., 12, 306; 21, 100; 26, 117; ill., 14, 43

Mammoth Hot Springs (Yellowstone N . P, ), ill., 12, 437

Mammoth Mine, 13, 48

Mammoth Mountain, 21, 57

Manly Lake, 17, 76

Manly Lookout, 24, 85, 86

Manzanita (Arctostaphylos), 3, 305, 309; ill., 3, 305

Maps: Big Basin, 3, 218; Mt. Brewer east basin, 3, 108; Brown, Prof. Bolton Coit, 1, 302; 2, 26; Brue map of California, 28, 30-31, 41; Bubbs Creek basin, 2, 114, 128, 271; Burr map of California, 28, 30-31, 41; California, 15, 83, 90, 91; 28, 30-31, 40-41; Carson Pass, 15, 83; Cartridge Pass trail, 17, 106; Center Basin, 2, 271; Colby Pass region, 11, 128; Crater Lake, 1, 37; Crespi map of San Francisco Bay, 13, 56; Death Valley, 24, 62-63, 78; Devils Postpile National Monument, 8, 226-227; Eagle Peak Falls site, 7, 224; Estudillo map of San Joaquin Valley, 26, 30; Evolution region, 5, 229; Fall River Mills to Susanville, 2, 194; Fish Creek upper basin, 4, 205; Fractional scales, 5, 260; Fremont explorations, 15, 83, 90, 91; Gallatin map of California, 28, 30-31, 40; Goddard Creek region, 12, 8; Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 4, 80; Grouse Meadow to Vidette Meadow, 11, 358-359; Hell-for-Sure Pass Trail, 17, 106; High mountain route, 7, 22; High Sierra Camps, 12, 38; Jack Main Canyon, 1, 179; John Muir Trail, 7, 22; 17, 106; Kaweah Peaks, 2, 185; Kerrick Canyon, 1, 177, 179; Kings River, Head-waters, 1, 302; Middle Fork, 5, 18; Kings River Canyon and Kings Canyon National Park, 2, 49; 12, 228 (development plans, 1947, 32, 119; Master plan, 1947, 32, 112); Kings-Kem Divide, 2, 26; LeConte map of Sierra Nevada, 4, 311; 25, 35; Little Lost Valley of Shepherd Crest, 18, 69; 34, 84; McClure's Pass, 1, 173; Medicine Lake Lava region, 2, 312; Mountaineers' Olympic outing, 9, 148; Muir Crest, 26, 110; Muir Gorge trail, 1, 206; Olympic Range (Washington), 9, 148; Ouzel Basin, 3, 109; Palisades, 5, 18; 24, 46; Pinchot Pass trail, 17, 106; Pine Ridge trail, 1, 210; Preuss map of California, 15, 91; Rae Lakes basin, 3, 136; Ritter range, 23, 30; Ritter-Whitney triangulation, 2, 286; Roaring River, 11, 128; Mt. St. Elias, 2, 136; San Francisco Bay region, 13, 56; San Joaquin River, South Fork, 5, 229; San Joaquin Valley, 26, 30; Sequoia National Park, 8, 220; 12, 416; Shepherd Crest, 18, 69; 34, 84; Sierra Club Soda Springs property, 9, 37; Sierra Nevada, 4, 311; 25, 35; 32, 78; Sixty Lakes Basin, 3, 136; Slide Canyon to Kerrick Canyon, 1, 177; Susanville to Fall River Mills, 2, 194; Taboose Pass trail, 17, 106; Tehipite Valley, 12, 127; to Kings River Canyon, 2, 49; Tenaya Canyon, 9, 134; Triangulation between Mt. Ritter and Mt. Whitney, 2, 286; Tuolumne Meadows property, 9, 37; United States Geologic SuI:Vey maps, 2, 115-117; Vernon Lake region, 1, 185; Vidette Meadow to Grouse Meadow, 11, 359; Whitney region, 26, 110; Whitney-Ritter triangulation, 2, 286; Mt. Whitney trail, 1, 1; Wilkes map of California, 28, 31, 40; Yokut Indians range, 12, 388; Yosemite, Lake (ancient), 9, 11; Yosemite High Sierra Camps, 12, 38; Yosemite mining history, 13, 43; Yosemite Valley, 12, 228

Marble Canyon (Colorado River), ill., 27, 78-79

Marble Mountain Primitive Area, 18, 29

Margaret, Lake (Canada), ill., 2, 264

Marian, Lake (Utah), 24, 109-120; ill., 24, 62-63

Marie Lake, ill., 11, 40

Marin County fire of 1945, 31, 18-23

Marine borer protection, 8, 78

Marion Gorge (Olympic N. P.), ill., 9, 150

Marion Lake, 4, 259; 12, 56, 154; ill., 12, 316

Marion Peak, 12, 154

Mariposa Battalion, 25, 41; 26, 30-31

Mariposa grove, 3, 24-25; 5, 242-250; 6, 58-61; 7, 219; 12, 57

Marjorie, Lake, 12, 57

Marmolata (Canada), 26, 61

Marmot, 4, 281; 6, 37; 21, 86; ill., 12, 105, 120

Marmot Ridge, 3, 110

Marsh, Mt., 7, 109; ill., 7, 111

Marten, 17, 18; 21, 86

Martha Lake, 12, 57; 27, 88

Marvin Pass, 12, 57

Massive, Mt. (Colorado), 29, 22-23

Mather Pass, 11, 269-270, 359-367, 423, 424; 12, 57, 417-418; 16, 107; 27, 91; ill., 11, .362, 423; 15, 71

Matlock Lake, ill., 7, 240

Matterhorn (Alps), 6, 75-86; 13, 82-83; 14, 85; 18, 111; 25, 73-87; 30, 81-82; ill., 6, 75, 78, 82; 31, 14-15

Matterhorn Canyon, 1, 175; ill., 8, 209

Matterhorn Peak (Yosemite N. P.), 3, 159-163; 4, 287; 11, 256; 20, 76, 106; 22, 53; 27, 126; ill., 3, 118-162

Matterhorn Peak, False, ill., 3, 118

Matthes Crest, 17, 113; 34, 110-111; ill., 15, 59; 20, 110-111; 34, 86-87; see also Echo Ridge

Maturango Peak, 27, 138

May Lake trail, 25, 113

May Lundy mine, 13, 40-53; ill., 13, 40

Maye, Lake (Canada), 9, 242; ill., 9, 240

Mayon (Philippine Islands), 4, 228-234

Mazamas, 2, 57-58; 6, 132; 9, 200; 10, 231; 12, 309, 422-423; 13, 89; 14, 89-90; 15, 111; 17, 108; 18, 121; Glacier Peak outing, 1911, 8, 174-184; Mt. Jefferson outing, 1900, 3, 203-209; Mt. Rainier outing, 1897, 2, 192-193; 3, 271-287; 1914, 9, 310; Mt. St. Helens outing, 1909, 7, 170-179; Three Sisters outing, 1910, 8, 53-54

Mead, Lake (Colorado River), 24, 124

Meadows, deterioration and protection, 8, 39-42; 27, 16; 32, 53-62; 34, 140-143; ill., 8, 40, 41; 32, 62-63; see also Wilderness areas and preservation

Meadows, Poison, 4, 195, 213

Medicine Bow Mountains (Wyoming), 12, 283-288; ill., 12, 288

Medicine Lake lava region, 2, 312-319; map, 2, 312; ill., 2, 314, 316, 318; see also Modoc Lava Beds

Melanerpes formicivorus, see woodpecker, California

Mendel, Mt., 16, 104; 27, 98

Mentzelia, see Blazing-star

Merced Canyon, 2, 105; 6, 235-237, 290-293; 7, 39-48; 8, 152-153; ill., 3, 28; 6, 236, 292; 7, 171

Merced Canyon soda springs, see Soda Springs-Merced Canyon

Merced grove, 12, 57

Merced Lake, 7, 40; 12, 57; ill., 6, 236; 7, 39, 171; 20, 30-31

Merced Lake Camp, 12, 40

Merced Pass and Peak, 12, 57

Merced Range, 11, 187-188

Merced River, 2, 197-199; 7, 265; 25, 114; discovery and naming, 12, 57; 13, 58; Lyell Fork, 11, 315; 17, 8; ill., 6, 307; 7, 87; 8, 132; 11, 258; 17, 23; 20, 30-31

Merriam, Mt., 17, 123; 19, 93; ill., 19, 94-95

Merritt, Mt. (Glacier N. P .), 12, 165-167; ill., 12, 5

Mesa Verde National Park, 9, 65, 321

Metasequoia, 34, 82

Meteorological observatories, 5, 314; 6, 7-14, 177-185; see also Conness, Mt.; Rainier, Mt.; Rose, Mt.; Whitney, Mt.; Shasta, Mt.

Mexico: Club de Exploraciones, see Club de Exploraciones de Mexico; mountains, 4, 264-273; 8, 96-109; see also Colima; Cordilleras; Ixtaccihuatl; Nevado de Toluca; Paricutin; Picacho del Diablo; Pico de Orizaba; Popocatepetl; San Felipe Desert; Sierra San Pedro Martir; Valle de la Grulla

Mice, 12, 344; 17, 20

Michaelis, Mt., 12, 58

Middle Fork, see name of river

Middle Kaweah, see Red Kaweah

Middle Palisade, 19, 96; 24, 42, 55-56; first ascent, 1921, 11, 252, 264-270; 12, 62; 24, 42; ascents, 12, 307; 16, 105, 107; 25, 16, 121; new route, 19, 96; West Peak, 16, 107; 19, 96; 24, 55; ill., 9, 189; 10, 223; 11, 197, 266, 267, 274, 423; 12, 325; 19, 94-95; routes of ascent, ill., 11, 266; see also Palisades

Middle Teton, 16, 47-54; ill., 16, 50, 51, 54; routes of ascent, ill., 16, 50

Milestone Basin . 9, 1-6; 18, 13; ill., 9, 2-3

Milestone Bow. see Milestone Bowl

Milestone Bowl. 2, 188; 9, 1-6; 12, 58; ill., 4, 306; 11, 121

Milestone Creek, ill., 13, 93; 18, 38

Milestone Mountain, 11, 313, 440; 12, 58-59; 26, 130; first ascent, 1912, 9, 1-6; 12, 59; ill., 9, 2-6, 48; 11, 120. 410-411; 18, 30, 31, 126; 22, 30" -31

Mill Creek Redwoods State Park (now Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park), 25, 106-107; ill., 25, 102-103

Miller Lake . 1 174; 12, 59; 28, 97

Mills, Mt., 15, 110; 32, 78

Mills Tower (Canada), 33, 125

Mimulus, 26, 67

Minaret Gap, 23, 23

Minaret Lake, ill., 23, 30-31

Minarets, 1, 74-76; 17, 114; 19, 99; 23, 110; 24, 6-7, 126; 31, 117; Climber's Guide, 23, 27-32; Clyde Minaret first ascent, 1928, 14, 87; 15, 109-110; 23, 27; comparison between Clyde and Michael Minaret, 15, 109; highest point, 15, 109; 17, 119; Leonard Minaret first ascent, 18, 134; map, 23, 30; Michael Minaret, 19, 83-85; 22, 106, 109; 23, 27; first ascent, 1923, 12, 28-33, 59; search for Walter A. Starr, Jr., 19, 81-85; ill., 1, 78; 6, 290, 304; 11, 48; 12, 28, 29; 15, 31; 23, 28, 29, 30" -31; 24, 30-31; 33, 30-31; 34, 15; see also Ritter Range

Mineral King, 3, 170, 255-257; 12, 59; winter sports possibilities, 34, 112-118; ill., 33, 102-103

Miner's Peak, see Sawtooth Peak

Mining history east of Yosemite, 13, 40-53; map, 13, 42; ill., 13, 40, 41, 48, 49

" Minnesota National Park " proposed, 3, 263

Minster, 3, 110; 25, 123

Mirror Lake (Yosemite N. P.), 3, 34; 8, 94; 9, 318; 12, 59; 25, 112; ill., 8, 89

Mirror Point, 26, 116

" Mississippi Boys, " 24, 78-105

Mist Falls, 1, 243; 8, 16; ill., 26, 14-15

Mitchell Meadow and Peak, 12, 59

Miter, 26, 118

Moat Lake (Canada), ill., 13, 5; 14, 30, 71

Modoc Lava Beds, 2, 312-319; 12, 96; see also Medicine Lake lava region

Momotombo (Nicaragua), 4, 270

Monarch Divide, ill., 11, 173

Monkey-flower, 26, 67

Mono County, 12, 59

Mono Craters, 3, 80-81

Mono Creek, 1, 226; 12, 59; Poison meadows, 4, 195; ill., 32, 30-31

Mono Creek Canyon, 1, 221-237; 2, 251-262; 4, 194; 7, 8-14; ill., 2, 256

Mono Creek Pass, see Mono Pass

Mono Lake, 3, 78-79, 82-83; 7, 95, 195; 12, 59; ill., 3, 326

Mono Lake Basin road, 7, 130

Mono Mesa, 32, 15-18, 130

Mono National Forest, 26, 124

Mono Pass, 12, 59; 15, 113-115; ill., 7, 14; 10, 105

Mono Rock, 32, 131

Mono Trail, ill., 10, 293

Montara Club, 4, 313

Montgomery, Mt., 20, 102

Monument Peak (Death Valley), 25, 117-118; ill., 25, 102-103

Monument Valley (Arizona), 24, 68-73

Moose, 12, 335; ill., 12, 340

Moraga expedition, 1806, 13, 58

Moraine Dome, 25, 112

Moraine Lake, 4, 306; 9, 19; 10, 226-227; ill., 7, 27; 9, 18-19; 10, 174, 198; 11, 172

Moraine Park (Rocky Mountain N. P.), 3, 194-196; ill., 3, 193, 195; see also Willow Park

Moraines, see Glaciers and glaciation

Moran, Mt. (Grand Teton N. P.), 11, 161-166; 12, 365-367; 32, 129; ill., 11, 164; 12, 356, 360, 368

Moran Point (Yosemite), 25, 112

Moro Rock, 12, 60; 25, 127-128; 34, 145-146

Morris Meadow (Trinity Alps), 21, 15

Morrison, Mt., 12, 60; 32, 130

Mott Lake, 13, 85; ill., 15, 23

Mount Desert Island (Maine), ill., 11, 12, 13; see also Acadia N.P.

Mount LyeIl Camp, 12, 40

Mount McKinley National Park (Alaska), 10, 244; see also Karstens Ridge; McGonagaIl Pass ; McKinley, Mt.; Muldrow Glacier; Parker Pass

Mount Olympus National Park, see Olympic National Park

Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), 2, 320; 6, 44-51; 7, 194, 247; 8, 55, 222; 9, 65, 208, 320; 10, 99, 109, 248, 358, 367; animal life 6, 32-38;

Mountaineers' Outing, 1930, 16, 63-66; see also Cowlitz Glacier; Eagle Peak; Gibraltar Rock; Indian Henry's; Klapatchie Park; Liberty Cap; Navada Falls; Nisqually Glacier; Paradise Glacier; Paradise Park; Paradise River; Paradise Valley; Rainier, Mt.; Skyline Trail; Spray Park; Tatoosh Range; Unicorn Peak; .Van Trump Park

Mount Shasta Rest House, 11, 307

Mount Whitney Club Journal, 4, 318

Mount Whitney Trail, 1, 1-8; 5, 258-259; 14, 84; map, 1, I; ill., 1, 292; 22, 14-15, 62-63; 32, 31

Mountain beaver, see Beaver, Mountain

Mountain building, see Geological studies; Mountain summits

Mountain Creek (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 341

Mountain goat, 6, 20, 32; 7, 226; 12, 117; ill., 8, 177; 12, 186, 187

Mountain lion: Yellowstone N; P., 12, 338; Yosemite N. P., 10, 442; 17, 16; ill., 10, 442, 486

Mountain meadows, see Meadows

Mountain military training, 31, 46-56

Mountain misery (Chamaebatia foliolosa), 3, 311; 9, 4!}-42; ill., 9, 41

Mountain photography, see Photography

Mountain ranges of the United States, 6, 201-203

Mountain summits, 11, 181-193, 290-291

Mountain troops, see United States Army-Mountain troops

Mountain warfare, 31, 32-56

Mountaineering, see Climbing and mountaineering; Skiing and ski-mountaineering

Mountaineering and conservation organizations, see Alpine Club of Canada; Alpine Congress; American Alpine Club; Appalachian Mountain Club; Associated Mountaineering Clubs of North America; California Alpine Club; California Associated Societies for the Conservation of wildlife; California Botanical Society; Canadian Alpine Club; Club Alpin Franc; ais; Club Andino Boliviano; Club de Exploraciones de Mexico; Colorado Mountain Club; Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenverein; French Alpine Club; Mazamas; Montara Club; Mountaineers Club of Seattle; N ational Parks Association; Save-the-Redwoods League; Scottish Mountaineering Club; Sierra Club; Southern California Conservation Association; Tamalpais Conservation Club

Mountaineers Club of Seattle, 9, 81-83; 149-158, 200, 311; 10, 232-233; 11, 91; 12, 310, 423; 13, 90; 15, 111; 16, 63-66, 101; 17, 108; 18, 123

Mountains, naming, see Place names

Muir, Mt., 12, 60, 306; 21, 100-102; 26, 116; ill., 14, 43; 22, 14-15; 32, 30-31

Muir Crest, 22, 6; bibliography, 26, 121; Climber's Guide, 26, 102-121; map, 26, 110; passes, 26, 105; ill., 22, 15, 110; see also Whitney region

Muir Gorge, 1, 14, 205-206; 2, 181; 7, 215-216; 12, 60; descents-swimming, 17, 82-88; 20, 42-45; naming, 1, 206; map, 1, 206; i" ., 6, 241; 7, 216; 17, 82, 83, 86, 87

Muir Hut (Muir Trail), see John Muir Memorial Shelter

Muir grove, 12, 60

Muir Lodge (San Gabriel Range), 9, 80, 170-172, 181; 10, 60-61, 334; ill., 9, 170, 171; 10, 60

Muir Pass, 5, 236; 10, 346-347; 11, 3& -39, 139-140, 281; 12, 60; 27, 91, 129; ill., 11, 141, 181; 12, 248; 16, 11; 19, 14-15; 25, 14-15

Muir Pass-John Muir Memorial Shelter, see John Muir Memorial Shelter

Muir Trail, see John Muir Trail

Muir Woods National Monument, 6, 276, 285, 287-289; 11, 324-325; 13, 79; 21, 31; ill., 6, 285-288

Muldrow Glacier (Mt. McKinley N. P.), 28, 4-7; ill., 18, 83

Mules, 20, 71; 25, 14-15; 32, 10& -110; 33, 19-22; 34, 23-24; ill., 22, 95

Mulkey Meadows, 1, 4; 12, 61

Multiple-use policy of U. S. Forest Service, see United States Forest Service-Multiple-use policy

Municipal forests and forestry, 7, 204; Europe, 9, 74; San Diego, 8, 241-242

Murdock Lake, 12, 61

Muriel Lake, 27, 92

Muriel Peak, 27, 97

Muro BIanco, ill., 6, 118

Murphy Creek, 12, 61

Murray Canyon, 11, 351, 353

Muskeg, 14, 3

Muskrat, 12, 340

Mustagh Tower (Himalayas), ill., 31, 15

Myiochanes, see Pewee

Mystic Spring Trail, 3, 334

top

N

Names and naming, see Place names

Nance Peak, 12, 61

Nannus, see Wren

Narada Falls (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 9, 95

Narrative of Zenas Leonard, 27, 36-48

National Conference on Parks, 1921, 11, 196

National Conservation Commission, 7, 77

National forests: 6, 334-336; 11, 329-331; 32, 71-74; ~ agriculture, mining, fire and their influence on forest land, 3, 226-229; ill., 3, 226; American Forestry Congress, 1905, 5, 269-270; boundaries and boundary changes, 7, 135-137, 269-270; California, 12, 96; California Forestry Law, 1905, 5, 303-307; Clarke-McNary Act., 12, 317-318; concessions, 6, 335; denudation of vegetation, 2, 295-311; ill., 2, 295, 301; district administration, 7, 79, 82, 135, 137; Division of Forestry studiesfor scientific lumbering, 3, 200-202; experiment stations, 7, 81; federal vs. state control, 9, 72-73; fire prevention laws, 6, 208-209; fish planting, see Trout planting; forest fires and fire prevention, see Forest fires; grazing and pasturage (8, 80; 10, 483; 12, 298, 410; court decision, 4, 73-74; effects, 2, 295-311; 32, 36-42; High Sierra policy, 2, 292-293; limited grazing permission, 9, 104; Sierra Club stand, 27, 115-116; see also Grazing); hillside farmer and the forest, 5, 33-39; homestead laws, 5, 82-83, 150-152; 6, 70-72; list of national forests, 1908, 6, 336; management, 5, 145-150; 6, 334; maps, 10, 117, 375; multiple-use policy of U. S. Forest Service, 4, 71-72; 6, 125-National forest (cont.) 127; 32, 71-74; need for forest reserves, 1, 269-270; 2, 295-311; primitive areas, 18, 24-30; 23, 93-96; see also Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation; public camps, 11, 448; public lands withdrawal for national forests, 4, 247-249; reasons for federal control, 9, 46, 72; recreational uses, 10, 117-120, 253; 23, 85-93; reforesting, 3, 224-229; 7, 206-207; 8, 291; relation to national parks, 9, 60; 10, 253-255; 12, 98; revenue, 6, 139; 7, 80; San Francisco field headquarters, 7, 82; state regulation of deforestation, 6, 335; timber sales, 9, 116; transfer of reserves to Department of Agriculture, 5, 326; trout planting, see Trout Planting; United States Forest Service, see United States Forest Service; White Pine blister rust, 11, 334; see also Conservation; Forest fires; Forest Reservations and Forest Reserves; Forestry; Grazing; United States Forest Service; Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation; see also Angeles National Forest; Appalachian National Forest; Dakota National Forest; Inyo National Forest; Lassen National Forest; Ocala National Forest; Sequoia National Forest; Shasta National Forest; Tahoe National Forest; Trinity National Forest

National Irrigation Law, 1902, 4, 246

National Park Act, 1916, 10, 241

National Park Bureau, 8, 205, 231, 232-234, 282, 284

National Park Conferences, 8, 234; 9, 67; 10, 104, 250

National Park " Idea, " 12, 270, 348, 350; 33, 46-76; bibliography, 33, 77-78

National Park Service, 10, 362-372, 433; 11, II; 14, 69-70; beginnings, 8, 205, 232-235, 282-283; bill, 10, 113-114, 241-242; created, 1916, 10, 244; 26, 47; proposed, 9, 288; 10, 80; reports, 10, 362-372, 476-478

National Parks and Monuments: 4, 174; 8, 55-63, 217-239, 282-289; 9, 28-32, 60-69, 113-115, 106-208, 316-321; 10, 97-114, 214, 241-252, 362-372, 47~ 482; 11, 5-13, 117; Act of 1916, 10, 241; additions and extensions pro-National Park and Monuments (cont.) posed, 10, 107; 11, 6, 11-12; administration, 9, 114; animal life, 10, 107; 15, 108; animal problems survey, 1929, 15, 108; appropriations and revenues, 10, 103-105, 247-248, 349, 364; 11, 321; area, 1, 257; 8, 59; 10, 107; automobiles, 10, 104-105, 252; 11, 15, 321; California, 25, 108-116; commercial interests, 11, 212-214; conservation, 1, 272; 10, 107; dates of establishment, 8, 59; economic value, 10, 103, 349-350; first mention, 33, 52; grazing and pasturage, 10, 322-323, 330, 336-338, 371-372; 12, 176; growth and development, 8, 58-63; 11, 5-13, 212-218; jurisdiction, 10, 107; landscaping, 29, 61-66; list, 1, 257; 8, 59; National Park Service, see National Park Service; need, 8, 236-239; 9, 28-32, 60-61; 11, 117; " National Park Idea, " 33, 46-78; new national parks, 10, 108, 244; Frederic Law Olmsted on governmental preservation of natural scenery, 29, 61-66; origin, see National Park " Idea" ; overcrowding, 11, 15; 34, 31-54; patented lands, 9, 177; photograph exhibits, 8, 219; policy, 1; 0, 97-101, 478-482; private holdings, 8, 61; 9, 177; 10, 105-106; publications, 9, 69; recommendations proposed, 8, 58; 11, 11-12; relation to national forests, 9, 6{}-61; 10, 253-255; 12, 98-99; reports, 7, 197; 8, 231; 10, 113, 251; 11, 212-218; road standards, 34, 31-54; ill., 34, 34-35; trail development, see names of individual national parks; see also Trails, supervisors, 1918, 10, 372; visitors, 8, 63; 10, 103, 104-105, 252; 11, 89, 321; 34, 31-54; Water Power Act, 11, 321; see also Acadia National Park; " Appalachian N .P ." ; Bryce Canyon N. P.; Canyon de Chelly National Monument; Death Valley N. M.; General Grant N. P.; Glacier N. P.; Grand Canyon N. P.; Grand Teton N. P.; Hawaii N. P.; Kings Canyon N. P.; Lassen Volcanic N. P.; Mesa Verde N. P.; " Minnesota N. P." ; Mount McKinley N. P.; Olympic N. P.; Mount Rainier N. P.; Muir Woods N. M.; Oregon Caves N. M.; " Palm Canyon N. M." ; Saguaro N. M.; Pinnacles N. M.; Rainbow Bridge N. M.; Rocky Mountain N. P.; " Roosevelt-Sequoia N. P." ; Sequoia N. P.; " Tahoe N.P." ; Zion N.P.

National Parks Association, 11, 103-105

Natural history, see Animals; Birds; Butterflies; Insects; Puffball; Rattlesnake; Trees and shrubs; Trout; wildflowers

Nature-guide service in Yosemite Nat'l Park, see Yosemite Nat'l Park-Nature-guide service

Navajo desert region, 24, 68-73

Navajo Indians, 24, 68-73

NealI Lake, 12, 61

Needle, Third, see Third Needle

Needle borer, 9, 206

Needles, see Shiprock

Nevada Fall, 3, 38; 6, 308; 12, 61; ill., 3, 28, 39; 30, 46-47

Nevada Glacier, 10, 188; ill., 10, 190

Nevado de Toluca (Mexico), 8, 97-101; ill., 8, 97, 100, 101

New Guinea, 28, 58, 68-69

New York Butte, 27, 138

Newcomb, Mt., 26, 118

Niagara Falls, 7, 131-132; 8, 239, 279; 33, 69, 72

Nicaragua, 4, 270

Nichols, Mt. (Canada), ill., 2, 152

Niles Peak (Canada), 8, 189-190; ill., 8, 188

Niles-Daly Glacier (Canada), ill., 8, 188

Nine Lake Basin, 7, 35; ill., 10, 182

Nineveh legend, 18, 97-99

Nisqually Glacier (Mt. Rainier N. P.), 3, 287; motion,, 108-114; chart, 6, 112; recession, 20, 21-22; ill., 6, 2, 108, 110

Nisqually Valley, ill., 9, 82

Nivation, 18, 72; 22, 17; ill., 22, 30-31

Nomenclature, see Place names

Noon Mark, 3, 110

Norden, 20, 2-3; ill., 22, 94-95; 26, 94-95; 27, 30-31; see also Clair Tappaan Memorial Lodge

North Dome, 12, 61; ill., 3, 43; 8, 132

North Fork, see name of river

North Guard, ill., 26, 94-95

1, 296; 5, 1-19; 11, 204-205, 251; 12, 62; 19, 24-27; 24, 42, 51-53; first ascent, 1903, 5, 1-19; 11, 204, 205, 251; 12, 62; 19, 24; 24, 42, 52; North Palisades (cont.) ascents, 9, 180; 11, 204-205, 251, 313; 12, 91; 14, 58-60, 86-87; 16, 105, 107; 17, 124-125; 19, 24-26, 95-96; 23, 33; glacier, see Palisade Glacier; named Mt. Jordan, 1, & 96; Northwest Peak, 24, 53; routes, 11, 204-205; 19, 25; 24, 52-53; traverses, 16, 105; 19, 25, 95; 24, 128; Winter ascent, 1940, 26, 142; ill., 1, 297; 5, 15; 9, 263; 10, 223; 11, 205, 267; 12, 92, 305; 16, 14; 19, 14, 25, 94-95; 21, 3(}-31; 23, 62-63; routes of ascent, ill., 19, 25; see also Palisade Glacier; Palisades; " U" -Notch route

North Peak, ill., 18, 70, 71; 34, 86-87

North Sister (Oregon), 8, 54

North Star Mountain (Washington), ill., 8, 181, 184

North Star Park (Washington), 8, 183; ill., 8, 184

Northeast Gully (Yosemite N. P.), 25, 51

Novitates (Arizona pines), 2, 72 -

Nucifraga, see Clark Crow

Nutcracker, Clark, see Clark Crow

Nuthatch, Red-bellied (Sitta canadensis) 6, 248

Nutmeg, California false (Tumion californicum) 4, 127-128; ill., 4, 123

Nutmeg, Coast (Tumion californicum littoralis), 4, 128

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O

Oak, Blue (Quercus douglasii), 3, 304; Brewer's (Quercus breweri), 3, 308; ill., 3, 309; Scrub (Quercus dumosa), 3, 309; see also Live-oak

Obelisk, 33, 120

ObergabeIbom (Switzerland), ill., 6, 78

Observation Peak, ill., 8, 280; 9, 189

Ocala National Forest (Florida), 7, 77

O'Hara, Lake (Canada), ill., 8, 188

Olancha Peak, 26, 120

Old Baldy, see San Antonio, Mt.

Old Faithful geyser (Yellowstone N. P .), ill., 30, 46-47

Olympic National Park (Washington), 21, 22-24; Mountaineers' Outing, 1913, 9, 149-158; ill., 21, 15; see also Elwha Basin; Hoh Glacier; Olympus, Mt.; Queets Basin; Quenault River; Seattle, Mt.

Olympic Range (Olympic National Park), 9, 148-158; map, 9, 148; see also Olympic National ParkOlympus, Mt. (Greece), 9, 313-315; 30, 71-77; bibliography, 9, 315; ill., 9, 309

Olympus, Mt. (Olympic N. P.), 9, 152-153; ill., 9, 152, 153, 156; see also Olympic N. P.

Olympus, Mt. (Rocky Mountain N. P.), ill., 7, 234

" One Hundred Peaks" goal, 31, 115-117

Onion Valley, ill., 7, 240

Oregon, 20, 109; see also Crater Lake; Eliot Glacier; Hood, Mt.; Hunt's Cove; Jefferson, Mt.; North Sister; ThieIsen, Mt.; Three Fingered Jack; Three Sisters; Washington, Mt.

Oregon Caves National Monument, 9, 58-59, 115

Oregonia, 18, 51-52

Organizations and clubs, see Mountaineering and conservation organizations

Orientation, 32, 12-13

Orizaba, see Pico de Orizaba

Osprey, 14, 36

Otter, Sea, 33, 13

Ottoway Peak, 12, 61

Outpost, 22, 57

Ouzel, Water, see Water Ouzel

Ouzel Basin, 3, 109-111; 12, 62; map, 3, 109

Ouzel Camp, 3, 110

Ouzel Creek, 3, 109; 12, 62

Ouzel Pool, 3, 110

Overgrazing danger, 32, 36-42; see also

Grazing and pasturage

Ovis canadensis, see Bighorn Sheep

Owen, Mt. (Grand Teton N. P.), 32, 129

Owens Lake, 12, 62; 17, 72

Owens River, 12, 62

Owens Valley, 12, 62; Sierra Nevada ascent routes, 13, 31-35; skiing, 19, 47; ill., 7, 31

Oxycedrus, see Juniper, Prickly

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P

Pacific Glacier (Alaska), ill., 10, 17

Pacific slope conifers, see Conifers of the Pacific Slope

Pack animals, 2, 36-43, 287-289; 17, 89-93; 21, 40-44; Harrison Pass crossing, S, 115-121, 297-302; see also Diamond hitch; Packers and packing

Pack trips, see Packers and packing

Packers and packing, 2, 36-43, 287-289; 16, 9; 24, 25-28; 25, 14-15, 21-25; 34, 22-26; commissary list, 24, 27; meadow conservation, 34, 140-143; saddling and loading, 21, 40-44; wilderness policy, 32, 96-98; ill., 11, 439; 24, 30-31; 26, 94-95; see also Bivouacking; Camping; Diamond hitch; Sierra Club-Annual outings.

Packsack, 22, 38-39

Paiju Peak (Himalayas), ill., 31, 14-15

Painted Lady, see Colored Lady

Pait Valley, see Pate Valley

Palisade, Middle, see Middle Palisade

Palisade, North; Northeast, see North

Palisade

Palisade, South; Southeast, see Split Mountain

Palisade Creek Canyon, 5, 9; 11, 357; ill., 9, 189; 11, 197, 358, 359, 363; 19, 14-I5, 46-47, 94-95; 25, 14-15

Palisade Crest, 24, 55; ill., 19, 95

Palisade Glacier, 5, 12, 13; 9, 261-263; 14, 58-60; 17, 124; 19, 25; ill., 5, 15; 9, 54, 262, 263

Palisade Lakes, lower lake, ill., 11, 363; upper lake, ill., 11, 358

Palisades, 1, 296; 5, 1-19; 12, 62; 16, 107; 17, 124-125; 19, 24, 95-96; 23, 33-35, 104; 24, 40-58; bibliography 24, 44-45; Climber's Guide, 24, 40-58; history,, 2-3; 11, 251-252; 12, 62; 19, 24; 24, 42; map, 5, 18; 11, 359; 24, 46; origin of name, 5, 3-4; 11, 251; 12, 62; 19, 24; Owens Valley ascent routes, 13, 33-34; passes, 24, 45, 49; ill., 1, 297; 4, 177; 5, 2, 5, II; 9, 188; 10, 223; 11, 173; 19, 95; 21, 30-31; 23, 62-63; see also Middle Palisade; North Palisade; Palisade Glacier; Sill, Mt.; Split Mountain

Palm, Washington (Washingtonia filifera) 11, 218, 325-326, 351, 352; ill. 11, 350

Palm, Wax, 22, 86-91; ill., 22, 94-95

" Palm Canyon National Monument " proposed, 11, 325-326; ill., 11, 350

Palm Springs, 11, 218, 325-326; ill., 11, 350

Palmer Mountain, 12, 62

Pam, Mt. (Canada), 10, 272-273; ill., 10, 276, 277

Panama Canal, 4, 271

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 9, 178, 288

Panamint Lake, 171 72-73

Panamint Range, 271 83; ill., 24, 62-63

Panamint Valley, 24, 87, 90, 104

Panorama Cliff, 22, 108; 23, 117; 25, 57

Papago Saguaro National Monument, see Saguaro National Monument

Papilio indra, 9, 90-91; 18, 51

Paradise Glacier (Mt. Rainier N. P .), ill., 1, 113

Paradise Park (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 11, 96

Paradise River (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 1, 113

Paradise Valley (Kings River), 1, 242-243; 3, 152; 4, 178-179; 6, 102-103, 117-118, 123; 7, 181-182; trail, 7, 190-191; ill., 2, 90; 6, 118; 7, 182; 8, 16, 48-49; 26, 14-15, 94-95

Paradise Valley (Mt. Rainier N. P.), ill., 9, 82, 83

Paragon Peak, 13, 6; ill., 13, 9, 12

Paricutin (Mexico), 29, 67-76; ill., 29, 46-47

Parker Pass (Mt. McKinley N. P.), ill., 28, 30-31

Parnassius, 9, 93-94; 18, 49; ill., 9, 94

Parnassus, Mt. (Greece), 9, 278-283; ill., 9, 280-283

Parsons Memorial Fund, 9, 223-224

Parsons Memorial Lodge, 9, 223, 287; 10, 144, 359; 23, 96-97; reports, 10, 84-85, 436; 11, 202; 21, 80; ill., 9, 224; 10, 80, 81, 88, 143; 11, 411

Parsons Peak, 12, 63

Partridge, Plumed, see Quail, Mountain

Parviconae pines, 2, 69-70

Passes, 271 59-64; see also Place names; Climbers Guide to the High Sierra

Pasturage, see Grazing and pasturage

Pate Valley, 1, 207; 2, 181-182; Indian pictographs and relics, 6, 241-242, 258-259; 271 125; rattlesnakes, 2, 182; ill., 6, 242, 258, 259; 9, 261; 12, 24, 25

Patented lands, see National Parks and Monuments-Patented lands; Yosemite N. P .-Patented lands

Patriarchs (Zion National Park), ill., 10, 340

Pavilion Dome, 12, 63

Peaks, elevations of, see Elevations of Mountain Peaks

Pear Lake ski slopes, ill., 271 30-31; 33, 102-103

Peary Lake (Glacier N. P.), ill., 12, 104

Peeler Lake, 12, 126

Peltiphyllum, see Umbrella plant

Pendente spruces, 2, 157-162

Peninsula Meadow, see Cascade Valley

Penthestes, see Chickadee

Perfection Meadow, ill., 11, 136

Perkins, Mt., 12, 63; ill., 11, 422

Persistentes, 2, 64

Peter, Lake, 12, 63

Peter Grubb Hut, ill., 27, 30-31

Peter Peak, 27, 102

Pewee, Western wood (Myiochanes richardsonii), 8, 264-265; ill., 8, 265

Phacelia, 26, 67, 69

Phelan Bill, 11, 6; 26, 47-49

Philippines, 4, 172; 5, 26-32; 14, 37-38

Phlox, Alpine (Phlox douglasii), 11, 149; ill., 12, 348

Photography, 11, 408; 25, 30; 26, 82-89; 29, 41-46; 31, 15-17; birds, 5, 103; 8, 158; comparison photography, 29, 95-96; composition, 26, 88-89; development, 26, 87; equipment and technique, 8, 158; 10, 409-413; 20, 55; 26, 83-89; 29, 42, -43, 44; film material, 26, 84; filters, 26, 85; glaciers, 5, 23-25; interpreting the natural scene, 30, 47-50; lenses, 26, 85; lighting and exposure, 26, 86; sunshades, 26, 85; see also, in Index of Names: Ansel Adams, Joseph N. LeConte, Vittorio Sella, Cedric Wright

Picacho (California), 19, 101-102

Picacho del Diablo (Mexico), 18, 56-62; ill., 18, 58, 59, 62

Picea, see Spruce

Pickering, Mt., 26, 118

Picket Guard, 2, 189; 12, 63; 22, 105; ill., 4, 304

Picket Range (Washington), 22, 78

Pico de Orizaba (Mexico), 8, 106-109; 9, 109; ill., 8, 108

Pictographs, see Indian pictographs

Pigeon Spire (Canada), 26, 63; ill., 24, 62-63

Pika, see Cony

Pike's Peak (Colorado), 3, 190

Pilot Knob, 19, 92

Pinaster pines, 2, 65, 66-75

Pinatubo, Mt. (Philippines), 5, 26-32

Pinchot, Mt., 4, 262, 288; 12, 63; ill., 11, 422

Pinchot Pass, map, 17, 106; ill., 11, 422, 423; 32, 30; 34, 14-15

Pines: 2, 64-75; Balfour (Pinus balfouriana), 4, 214, 299, 303; 27, 24; Big-cone, see Coulter Pine; Bishop (P. muricata), 18, 65-66; 31, 20; Black, see Jeffrey Pine; Foxtail (P. aristata; P. Balfouriana), 4, 208, 214, 219, 303; 27, 24; ill., 4, 214; 9, 74; 10, 158, 167; 22, 62; Heavy-coned, see Graviconae; Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), 27, 24; Lodge-pole (P. murrayana, 4, 208-209, 299; 9, 206; 12, 136-137; 27, 24; destruction by pests, 9, 206; ill., 4, 209; 10, 328; 11, 53; 16, 18); Lone, see Torrey Pine; Monterey (P. radiata), 18, 65; Nevada nut, see Pinon Pine; Pinon (P. monophylla), 4, 298-299; 11, 150; Prickle-cone, see Bishop Pine; Rocky Mountain white (P. ftexilis), 4, 299; Single-leaf, see Pinon Pine; Sugar (P . lambertiana), 13, 13; Swamp, see Bishop Pine; Tamarack, Tamrac, see Lodgepole Pine; Torrey (P. torreyana), 18, 66; Western yellow (P. ponderosa), 11, 52; White-bark (P. albicaulis), 4, 299; 27, 24; ill., 10, 159; 34, 1; see also Conifers

Pine Ridge trail, 1, 209-213; map, 1, 210

Pinicola, see Grosbeak, California pine

Pinnacle Pass, 26, 106

Pinnacle Pass Needle, 22, 109; 26, 115 Pinnacle Ridge, 26, 114; Pinnacles, 19, 93; 25, 120; see also Pinnacles National Monument

Pinnacles National Monument, 5, 85; 11, 325; 19, 93; first ascent of the " Hand, " 33, 123-124; first ascent of the " Machete, " 25, 13{}-131; ill., 25, 102-103

Piranga, see Tanager

Piscator Peak, 11, 46

Pitons, 19, 34; 27, 73-74; 31, 86-90; ill., 33, 102-103; see also Climbing and mountaineering

Pitt River Canyon, ill., 2, 318

Piute Branch, see Piute Creek (San Joaquin)

Piute Creek (San Joaquin), 5, 154-155, 255; 11, 278; 12, 63; ill., 10, 89

Piute Creek (Yosemite N. P.), ill., 20, 62-63

Piute Indians, 12, 63

Piute Mountain, 12, 63

Piute Pass, 11, 277; 27, 89

Pivot Crag, see Fin Dome

Place names, 2, 53-55; 3, 109-111; 4, 239-241; 5, 139-140, 254-255, 260; 6, 52, 87-99, 201-203; 9, 55; 11, 27; 27, 104; of High Sierra region; Names A-J, 11, 380-407; K-Q. 12, 47-64; R-Z, 12, 126-147; of Southern Sierra peaks, 11, 244-254; see also Indian names; Rainier, Mt.-Tacoma-Rainier controversy; Sierra Nevada-Nomenclature

Plains-Trees and shrubs, 3, 301-302

Planesticus, see Robin

Plants, Galapagos Archipelago, 27, 81-82; Sierra Nevada-east side, 33, 42-45; reappearance on burned areas, 31, 18-23; see also Trees and shrubs; Wild flowers

Plum, Wild (Prunus subcordata), 3, 309

Pohono trail, 12, 64; 25, 112

Point Lobos Reserve State Park, 18, 110, 120-121; Cypresses, 18, 64-67; poem, 18, 63; ill., 18, 63, 66, 67

Poison meadows, 4, 195, 213

Poison-ivy and Poison-oak, 12, 173-174

Polemonium, ill., 17, 14; 26, 14-15

Polemonium Club, 27, 9

Pollux Peak (Yellowstone N. P.), ill., 12, 276

Pongo de Manseriche (Brazil), 18, 94; ill., 18, 94

Pope's Peak (Canada), 8, i90-191; ill., 8, 189

Popocatepetl (Mexico), first ascent, 1519, 25, 88; early ascent by Spanish .conquistadores, 11, 316; 25, 88-95; ascents, 2, 10; 8, 101-104; 17, 77-81; 28, 71-75; ill., 8, 96, 104, 105

Poppy, Bush (Dendromecon rigida), 3, 309

Porcupine, Sierra Nevada, 15, 57-58; Yellowstone, 12, 343; ill., 10, 296; 12, 337

Porcupine Flat, ill., 8, 40

Pothole Lake, ill., 10, 191

Powell, Mt., 12, 64; 27, 88, 96; first ascent, 1925, 12, 222, 250-251; 27, 96; ill., 11, 275; 12, 248

Prattville, 3, 289

Predatory animals, 33, 13-17

Preuss map of California, ill., 15, 91

Primitive areas, see Wilderness areas and wilderness preservation

Primrose, Sierra (Primula suffrutescens), 6, 165; 11, 149; 21, 89-90

Primrose Pond, 3, 110

Primula, see Primrose

Projectile, Mt. (Canada), 33, 4-5, 124

Providence Spring, 24, 94

Prunus, see Plum

Pseudotsuga, see Spruce, Douglas ; Spruce, Big-cone

Ptarmigan, 4, 144; 6, 38; ill., 12, 119

Public lands, 3, 112; 4, 246-249; frauds, 5, 269; laws, 4, 322; 5, 82-83

Public service, 12, 78

Puffball, Sierra, 6, 39-42; 14, 61-63; 21, 90; ill., 6, 39; 14, 62, 63; see also Calbovista; Calvatia; Lycoperdon

Pulpit Rock, 23, 119; 26, 140; 31, 119; first ascent, 1939, 25, 62, 119

Pumice, 15, 4

Purcell Range, see Bugaboo Range

Purple Lake, ill., 33, 30-31

Pyramid Peak, 2, 120

Pyweack Fall, 25, 49-50


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