Sierra Club Home Page   Environmental Update  
chapter button
Explore, enjoy and protect the planet
Click here to visit the Member Center.         
Search
Take Action
Get Outdoors
Join or Give
Inside Sierra Club
Press Room
Politics & Issues
Sierra Magazine
Sierra Club Books
Apparel and Other Merchandise
Contact Us

Join the Sierra ClubWhy become a member?

Stopping Sprawl campaign home page - click here.
Get an overview. Sign up for an e-newsletter. Find out what you can do to help.
Backtrack
Environmental Update Main
Sprawl Main
In This Section
Sprawl Overview
Reports & Factsheets
Activist Resources
Get Involved!
Communities
Transportation
Articles & Research
Population and Sprawl

Get The Sierra Club Insider
Environmental news, green living tips, and ways to take action: Subscribe to the Sierra Club Insider!

Subscribe!

Stop Sprawl
Sprawl Costs Us All


Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of Transportation, Vehicle Miles Traveled, 1998

2 F. Kaid Benfield, Matthew D. Raimi, Donald D.T. Chen, Once There Were Greenfields, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1999, p. 32, figure 2-2

3 "1999 Annual Mobility Report," Texas Transportation Institute, 1999

4 Alan Sipress, "More Lanes Better? Not Necessarily; Traffic Increases, Studies Find," Washington Post, 1/13/00

5 "Why Are The Roads So Congested? An Analysis of the Texas Transportation Institute's Data on Metropolitan Congestion," Surface Transportation Policy Project, November 1999, p. 2

6 Marlin Stum, "A Road Runs Through It, the True Impacts of Our Legacy," http://www.stoplegacyhighway.org/road.htm

7 "Legacy Proposal Wins Feds' Nod,"

Salt Lake Tribune, 1/12/00

8 "Green Scissors 1999," edited by Gawain Kripke, Beth Moorman and Erich Pica, Friends of the Earth, Taxpayers for Common Sense, U.S. Public Interest Research Group, 1999, p. 83

9 "The Dark Side of the American Dream: The Costs and Consequences of Suburban Sprawl," Sierra Club, 1998, p. 22

10 "The Cost of Sprawl," Maine State Planning Office, May 1997, p. 8

11 "Sprawl Costs Us All," Sierra Club Poudre Canyon Group (Rocky Mountain Chapter), January 2000, p. 17-19

12 "The Cost of Sprawl," p. 8

13 Patrick Mazza and Eben Fodor, "Taking its Toll: The Hidden Costs of Sprawl in Washington State," Climate Solutions, 2000

14 Eric Damina Kelly and Barbara Becker, Community Planning: An Introduction to the Comprehensive Plan, Island Press, 2000, p. 165-166

15 David Bollier, How Smart Growth Can Stop Sprawl, Essential Books, 1998, p. 10

16 "The Dark Side of the American Dream," p. 1

17 "Smart Growth Benefits Us All," Tennessee Chapter of the Sierra Club, 1998, p. 5

18 Tony Davis, "Wildcat Subdivision Costs to Taxpayers is 'Staggering'," Arizona Daily Star, 2/23/00

19 Brett Hulsey, "Suburban Sprawl Costs Us All in the Midwest," Sierra Club Midwest Office, 1996, p. 20

20 "Community Planning," p. 164

21 "Sprawl Costs Us All," Grand Canyon Chapter of the Sierra Club in conjunction with the Sierra Club Southwest office, 1998, p. 19

22 "Six Deputies Will Beef Up Sheriff's Unit; Warren Co. Responds to Growth," Cincinnati Enquirer, 12/24/99

23 Janet Wetzel, "Growing City Equals More Emergencies; Extra Personnel Will Meet Needs," Cincinnati Enquirer, 6/13/99

24 Ibid.

25 "The Cost of Sprawl," Maine State Planning Office, May 1997, p. 9

26 A. Ann Sorensen, J. Dixon Esseks, "Living on the Edge: The Costs and Risks of Scatter Development," American Farmland Trust, Center for Agriculture in the Environment, Northern Illinois University, revised January 1999, p. 7

27 Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise Survey, as noted in The News and Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina), 11/5/99

28 Scott Mooneyham, "Tax Incentives, Industries Bring More Than Jobs to Rural Communities," AP News Wire, 5/31/99

29 Dan Eggen, "County May Ask More of Builders for Services," Washington Post, 5/9/98

30 Lisa Rein, "Builders Mount Attack on Prince William Plan," Washington Post, 2/13/00

31 "Smart Talk for Growing Communities," by Michelle Archie and Howard D. Terry, Topsfield Foundation Inc., 1998, p. 14

32 American Planning Association, "Palm Beach County Receives National Award for Land Use Plan," news release, 2/4/00

33 Anthony Downs and A. Knighton Stanley, "D.C. Should Learn From Pittsburgh," Washington Post, 9/24/95


Select Bibliography

Sierra Club Reports Used

  • Brett Hulsey, "Suburban Sprawl Costs Us All in the Midwest," Sierra Club Midwest Office, 1996
  • "The Dark Side of the American Dream: The Costs and Consequences of Suburban Sprawl," Sierra Club, 1998
  • "Smart Growth Benefits Us All," Tennessee Chapter of the Sierra Club, 1998
  • "Sprawl Costs/Sprawl Solutions for New Mexico and El Paso," Rio Grande Chapter of the Sierra Club, December 1999
  • "Sprawl Costs Us All," Grand Canyon Chapter of the Sierra Club in conjunction with the Sierra Club Southwest office, 1998
  • "Sprawl Costs Us All," Sierra Club Poudre Canyon Group (Rocky Mountain Chapter), January 2000
  • "Taming the Sprawl Monster," editors: Glen Besa, Joy Oakes, Sierra Club Appalachian Regional Office, (no date)

Other Reports Used

  • "The Cost of Sprawl," Maine State Planning Office, May 1997
  • "The Cost of Sprawl in Pennsylvania," prepared for the 10,000 Friends of Pennsylvania and Preservation Pennsylvania by Clarion Associates, January 2000
  • "The Cost of Suburban Sprawl and Urban Decay in Rhode Island," prepared for Grow Smart Rhode Island by H.C. Planning Consultants, Inc. and Planimetrics, LLP., December 1999
  • "Green Scissors 1999," edited by Gawain Kripke, Beth Moorman and Erich Pica, Friends of the Earth, Taxpayers for Common Sense, U.S. Public Interest Research Group, 1999
  • A. Ann Sorensen, J. Dixon Esseks, "Living on the Edge: The Costs and Risks of Scatter Development," American Farmland Trust, Center for Agriculture in the Environment, Northern Illinois University, revised January 1999
  • "Is Farmland Protection a Community Investment? How to do a Cost of Community Services Study," American Farmland Trust, Spring 1993
  • Mazza, Patrick and Eben Fodor, "Taking its Toll: The Hidden Costs of Sprawl in Washington State," Climate Solutions, January 2000
  • "Why Are The Roads So Congested? An Analysis of the Texas Transportation Institute˙s Data on Metropolitan Congestion," Surface Transportation Policy Project, November 1999

Books Used

  • Benfield, F. Kaid, Matthew D. Raimi, Donald D.T. Chen, Once There Were Greenfields, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1999
  • Kelly, Eric Damian and Barbara Becker, Community Planning: An Introduction to the Comprehensive Plan, Island Press, 2000

Report Main


Up to Top | Printer-friendly version of this page