Meeting Recordings

1/16/24: Beyond the City Limits: Managing the Chaos of Suburban Sprawl

Low density, lots of cars, retail expansion. We all know what sprawl looks like. But why do we have it? And what can we do about it? In this talk, George Homsy discusses the history of suburban sprawl and its causes. He describes the impacts through the lens of sustainability, which helps organize the environmental, economic, and social equity costs of sprawl. We will have to discuss the big question. What can we do about sprawl individually and collectively? As residents and as property owners? As citizens and as governments? George considers sprawl in the context of Broome County, but bring in examples from places around the United States. BIO: George Homsy directs the Environmental Studies Program at Binghamton University. George's research focuses on sustainability and local government policymaking. Currently, he is looking at sustainability leadership in local governments and energy policies impacting low- to moderate- income households. George received his PhD from Cornell University in city and regional planning. Before that he was a planning consultant working with communities in upstate New York. George began his investigation of local governments and sustainability as a journalist with the public radio environmental newsmagazine, Living on Earth, which he co-founded and co-produced.

12/19/23: Getting to Zero Waste

Chris Burger discusses the why and how to get to zero waste. This will be told through the experience of a family of four who reduced their waste to nearly zero by 1992 and have maintained that level ever since. Strategies on how to create a zero-waste community will also be discussed. BIO: Chris Burger has degrees in Chemical Engineering, Sociology, and Economics. - Business owner: Horizon Enterprises. Serves as Resource Management Consultant. - College Instructor: Science, Technology and Society. - Waste reducer since first Earth Day in 1970. - Built energy efficient home in 1978. - Home has created close to zero waste since 1992. - Home has used close tto zero fossil fuel since 2012. - Electric vehicle (EV) owner since 2021. Current Community Involvement: Broome County Environmental Management Council, Member Environmental Sustainability Rotary Action Group (ESRAG), Member Network for a Sustainable Tomorrow (NeST), Co-founder and Board Chair New York Sustainable Business Council, Vice Chair American Sustainable Business Council, Circular Economy Working Group Sierra Club: Member: Sierra Atlantic Editorial Board, Gas Action Committee, Energy Committee Chair both NY State Zero Waste Committee, and National Zero Waste Team Tier Energy Network (TEN), Member Past Community Involvement: Broome County Legislator Broome County Soil and Water Board, Chair Cornell University Eco-Justice Project, Chair Southern Tier 8, Chair Economic Development Council of the Southern Tier, Vice Chair Sierra Club: NY State Executive Committee Authored: Recycling Program Definition Report, (Study for Broome County) Alternatives in Solid Waste Management, (Study for Broome County) Untangling the Waste Knot, (Education program for Cornell Cooperative Extension) He has been featured in newspapers, books, magazines, radio, television, and in national exhibits.

11/21/23: Federal Climate Funding: Is NY ready?

Adam Flint, Director of Clean Energy Programs at Network for a Sustainable Tomorrow (NEST), gives a presentation on Federal Climate Funding: Is NY Ready? With trillions of dollars in Federal Climate funding rolling out, this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity will only succeed if States and communities are ready. Unfortunately, such readiness is the exception, not the norm. Learn what the situation is in NY, some ways this funding could be used and what needs to be done to prepare. This presentation covers: New York’s Climate Funding Readiness Are there any examples NY can follow? What projects can this funding support? What steps should be taken to improve the situation? BIO: For the last decade, Adam Flint has directed Clean Energy Programs in New York’s Southern Tier at the Network for a Sustainable Tomorrow (NEST). During the previous decade, his work was in higher education, where he served as Assistant Professor of Sociology at Hartwick College and as lecturer in Environmental Studies and Latin American Studies at Binghamton University. Adam co-founded the Tier Energy Network of the Southern Tier, where he coordinated TEN’s workforce development efforts, and also, the NY Energy Democracy Alliance, where he coordinates the Community Owned Shared Renewables Working Group. Together with a consortium of community based organizations and NYSERDA, he helped lead the co-design and launch of New York's $52m Regional Clean Energy Hubs, a permanent, one-stop education, outreach & workforce program based on a decade of implementation experience. Adam leads New York State Climate and Clean Energy Careers Working Group, a collaborative of stakeholders from across the sector dedicated to creating a system that is inclusive, equitable and capable of producing the thousands of skilled workers needed for the State’s clean energy transition.

10/17/23: Savings, Health and Comfort! Presentation by Diane Stefani of Climate Reality Project

Diane Stefani, a trained Climate Reality Project leader and co-chair of the Finger Lakes Greater Region chapter, will give a presentation on how you can achieve Savings, Health and Comfort via electrification with the help of money saving incentives. This presentation covers: The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) The 3 step home electrification process The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) and New York State incentives for home electrification and electric vehicles. The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) helps New Yorkers get the latest clean energy technologies and equipment that will save energy for years to come. From the cars we drive, to the ways we heat and cool our homes, the IRA is helping New Yorkers choose clean energy technologies that improve their health, safety, and quality of life. New Yorkers can combine IRA savings with New York State incentives and programs, helping homeowners cut energy use, save more money, contribute to a cleaner, healthier planet. Now is the time to start your clean energy future, free from fossil fuels including natural gas, oil, and propane.

BIO: Diane Stefani is a retired Human Resources leader. She says that throughout her career, she found leading teams and individuals through large scale change to be the most rewarding challenge. Guiding 25,000 people through organizational culture change was the epitome of this work. Diane is an active community volunteer. She draws strength and optimism from her fellow volunteers. She is a trained Climate Reality Project leader and co-chair of the Finger Lakes Greater Region chapter. She serves on the executive committee of Tier Energy Network, a regional network of industry, community and higher education representatives supporting the development of energy strategy for New York State. She taps into her professional background by focusing on workforce development strategy and implementation for clean energy jobs. She is also a Cornell Cooperative Extension Energy Navigator and, a former chair and on-going member of the Broome County Environmental Management Council. Diane and her husband love roaming the public lands of upstate New York. They adore their two adult children, their families, their friends and all the associated dogs, cats and other creatures.

9/19/23: How to Start a Community ReUse Center

Diane Cohen gives a presentation on how to start a self-sustaining, year-round community reuse center and lessons learned based on her experience as Chief Executive Officer of Finger Lakes ReUse, which has been in operation for over 15 years. From their website: ‘Tons of building materials, computers, electronics, household goods, appliances, and furniture unnecessarily enter the landfill. Used materials – too often wasted – are assets with overlooked economic value. Finger Lakes ReUse taps this value to strengthen our economy, build community, and protect our environment by re-directing materials from the waste stream into productive new uses.’ Finger Lakes ReUse operates two community-oriented shopping, and educational centers where the maximum reuse of materials is a priority; where safety, cleanliness, customer service, good business, education, and creativity are stressed; where living wage jobs are created and supported; where mentoring opportunities are available; and where education in the skills of repair and reuse is offered. Our aim is for everyone in the community to enjoy and partake in the services offered by Finger Lakes ReUse and, in time, to also assist other communities in the region to develop reuse services.

5/16/23: Home Energy Efficiency Incentives to Save Money!

Presentation by Paul R. Suarez, on how people could make their homes more energy efficient (insulation, better windows, weatherstripping, heat pumps, etc.) and utilize available financial assistance, such as tax credits, grants, and low interest loans, to help make this more affordable! This is timely and useful information, especially since there are changes in incentives from recent new legislation. Questions and discussion will be encouraged. Paul is the Community Energy Advisor at Cornell Cooperative Extension of Broome and Chenango Counties. He has been doing energy related workshops, on and off for over 10 years. He has also worked with two different local insulation companies in the areas of outreach and training. He has had energy efficiency upgrades done on three of his own homes so he has personal experience.

4/18/23: Climate Change vs Food, COP27 experience, legislation

Climate Change Impacts & Action in New York: Discussion with Ben Furnas, Executive Director, The 2030 Project, Cornell University Ben will speak about his experience in New York City when he served as Director of the New York City Mayor’s Office of Climate and Sustainability, what work is being done at the State level, some of the research that people at Cornell University are working on, and some insights on how climate change is already impacting New York State, including agricultural impacts. Following Ben’s brief remarks regarding his experiences working on addressing the Climate Change problem, the meeting will facilitate a discussion, so please bring your Climate Change questions and comments! This is a critical decade for acting on Climate Change and there is much to talk about.

2/21/23: Binghamton-Johnson City Waste Water Treatment Plant

Susquehanna Group of Sierra Club public meeting featuring Superintendent Elliott Wagner giving a short overview presentation on the Binghamton-Johnson City Waste Water Treatment Plant. Joining as well will be Ron Warwick Assistant Superintendent and Adam Afify Senior Operator. Topics include: Current treatment processes, solids removal, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) of regulated pollutants, photographs, and the plant's management team. Followed by Question and Answers. Elliott Wagner has been Superintendent of this treatment plant since 2019 and began working at the plant in 1995 as an electrician/instrumentation technician. 

1/17/23: New Energy New York with Dr. Stanley Whittingham

Slides available to view here:

NENY Presenation.pdf7.97 MB


Dr. Stanley Whittingham, 2019 Nobel Prize laureate, gives a presentation on the New Energy New York (NENY) project, which recently received $113 million in grants to accelerate innovation in battery technology and to transform New York’s Southern Tier into a global hub of energy storage manufacturing.  

NENY is a coalition led by State University of New York’s Binghamton University (BU), and New York Battery and Energy Storage Technology Consortium (NY-BEST), that will build a lithium-based battery development manufacturing facility, the Battery-NY Center, which will provide testing, certification, and scale-up capacity for new products and companies. NENY will also develop an energy product supply chain, expand workforce training, and engage community organizations to ensure that the economic benefits, estimated to grow to $2 billion, are equitable, accessible and shared across the region.  

BU President Harvey Stenger gave credit for the spearheading of NENY with the following statement: “Distinguished Professor and Nobel Prize-winner Stan Whittingham and our Associate Vice President Per Stromhaug had an idea they believed was crucial to our nation’s energy security.”

Dr. Whittingham, who was awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry as an inventor of lithium-ion batteries, covers an overview of the project’s vision, existing project partners, progress on lithium-ion battery research, and how it will help enable the economic transition to renewable energy, which is a key to saving a habitable climate. 

12/20/22: Composting and Recycling in Broome County

Josh Enderle of Cornell Cooperative Extension of Broome County presents an overview of Composting and Recycling in Broome County. Topics include: - Accepted recyclable materials and county programs - State recycling regulations and initiatives - Current landscape/lack of large-scale composting in Broome County - Local composting programs.

1/15/22: Following the 2022 Elections

Who represents us at all levels of government affects what we collectively can expect from planting and taking care of trees in our towns and villages, to policies regarding what businesses are encouraged to set up shop, what policies are put in place at state level regarding meeting NY's Climate Law goals, as well as priorities for funds from passage of the NY Environmental Bond Act. Although federal level results are not fully clear, they will be very important regarding climate action and environmental protection, more broadly. What are you happy about? What are you worried about? What are your priorities? What would you like elected officials to work on? The public, including Sierra Club endorsed candidates, are all welcome to attend and express their ideas and participate in this discussion.

10/18/22: Living with an Electric Vehicle

Chris Burger gives an overview of electric vehicles and why your next vehicle should be electric. The following EV owners share experiences with their electric vehicles: Chris - Ford Mustang Mach E Jack Davis - Tesla Model 3 Larry Blumberg - Chevrolet Bolt The hope is to lessen any anxiety people might have over buying an electric vehicle and to know how to evaluate the characteristics that are important in selecting one.

9/20/22: Donna Lupardo

Assemblywoman Donna Lupardo discusses NYS legislative issues. As Chair of the Agriculture Committee, she reviews ideas and legislation the Committee is considering, and what may be coming in 2023. She was instrumental in passage of farmland protection legislation and securing its needed funding. She addresses the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act, and how she sees NY's Climate Action Council recommending plans to meet greenhouse gas emission goals. She also informs us on the energy storage research and manufacturing that's taking shape in Broome County.

6/21/22: Zero-emission capable hybrids, and hydrogen fuel cells

Slides available to view here

Carol Gorenflo and Larry Fuehrer from BAE Systems in Endicott present Zero-emission capable hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell and battery electric power and propulsion technology. 




5/10/22: Glidepath's Oakdale Energy Storage Project

 A presentation on Energy Storage Systems and the need for different types of energy storage in NY in order to enable a transition of the grid to be 70% renewable energy by 2030 and 100% zero-emission electricity by 2040.

The presenter is Peter Rood, who is Chief Development Officer of GlidePath. Peter has over 16 years of energy sector experience with over 8 years of energy storage experience. The bulk of Peter’s work has focused on the development of renewable energy and energy storage projects throughout North America, Micronesia, and Australia and has included all aspects of energy project development, construction management, project finance, and M&A. Over his career, Peter’s work has resulted in over 1.5 GW of operating energy projects representing nearly $3B of investment.




4/19/22: Binghamton Move Out Project

Christina Fuller discusses the issue of student waste of semester move out and what’s being done to combat this locally and across the country. She was the principal founder of this initiative in 2018. It addresses this issue specifically in areas of Binghamton and Johnson City where Binghamton University students live, by donating their items to community groups. She will talk about how the project works, the impact it’s had, how it’s grown over the 3 cycles it’s ran, and what’s in store for the 4th cycle this upcoming May, including how folks can get involved. The project will be run between May 12 and 22 for picking up items and the following week for sorting and delivering to organizations that will provide to those in need. Pickup trucks or vans are needed to pick up and bring items to storage, then delivered to places that will receive them. In addition, help in sorting items and the loan of folding tables are needed. To volunteer: You will be contacted by one of the organizers following your submission. Christina Fuller is a BU graduate and is a current member of the Executive Committee of the Susquehanna Group of the Sierra Club. Founder and current Sorting Coordinator for the Binghamton Off-Campus Move Out Project which the Susquehanna Group now manages. Separately, she is employed at the NYS Assembly as a Legislative Assistant.


3/15/22: Transmission Planning for CLCPA 

 Elizabeth Grisaru, of the NYS Department of Public Service, discusses enhancements of the electrical grid to enable NYS to help meet ambitious greenhouse gas emission goals in its ground-breaking Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act.


2/16/22: NY Draft Scoping Plan for CLCPA

Presentation on New York State’s climate change program, including the nation-leading Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act (CLCPA). Mark Lowery, Assistant Director of DEC's Office of Climate Change, will describe major provisions of the Climate Act, the Climate Action Council’s Draft Scoping Plan for achieving the CLCPA's requirements, and opportunities for public input on the draft scoping plan. Talk will include a review of current programs to adapt to the effects of climate change and additional programs proposed in the draft scoping plan. Mr. Lowery will remind participants that the state’s Climate Smart Communities program is available to assist municipalities in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and preparing for the effects of climate change (includ'g adaptation & resilience) 

Mark D. Lowery is the assistant director of NYSDEC’s Office of Climate Change (OCC). Mark currently leads the state’s Interagency Climate Adaptation and Resilience Work Group. He is a member of the Climate Action Council’s Land Use and Local Government Advisory Panel and led development of the Council’s adaptation and resilience recommendations.


1/18/22: Electric Vehicles

 Gregory Kilmer, Broome County Commissioner of Public Transportation, will give a presentation on Electric Vehicles, including an overview of electrification of Broome County Public Transit.

12/21/21: NEW! Southern Tier Land Conservancy 501c3

This month we invited the Southern Tier Land Conservancy, a new organization in our area, to do a presentation and discuss their efforts toward land conservation.

The Southern Tier Land Conservancy is dedicated to conserving and restoring land in perpetuity throughout Broome County and beyond. Their mission is to conserve locally rare habitats, protect locally rare or threatened species, and build upon the existing natural infrastructure of the region. Their efforts focus on: Protecting and restoring wildlife habitat and biodiversity
Protecting and improving water quality
Conserving forest and wetland habitats to increase flood resilience
Providing access to nature close to home for all the residents of the region Mitigating the effects of climate change and building climate resilience for the region through the protection of green space and natural area

Established in 2020 as a 501c3 by Jason Shaw, Jeff Merrill, and Carl Lipo. This discussion will introduce the STLC and discuss the creation of its strategic plan, initial funding, etc.


11/16/21: Ethiopian Farming and Climate Smart Agriculture

 Ethiopian Farming and Climate Smart Agriculture with Christina Zawerucha East African Smallholder farmers are positioned to lead the world in climate-smart organic fruit and vegetable production. Using the Ethiopian social enterprise GreenPath Food as a case study, participants will learn how profitable modular permaculture microsystems can modify microclimate and scale up climate-smart agriculture. We will also explore simple systems that make organic certification, markets and premium prices accessible to smallholders historically barred from organic market entry, and how larger structural institutions can promote or inhibit climate-smart agricultural practices. Christina Zawerucha is an organic agronomist and English as Second Language/Career & Technical Education Instructor who specializes in developing sustainability literacy programs in an international context. Focused on working with immigrant populations and English Language Learners, Christina has developed participatory programs with social enterprises, nonprofits, and higher education institutions in New York City, Pennsylvania, Ecuador, Ukraine, Virginia, Haiti, and Ethiopia. Her curricula have been featured in the New York Times, the MacArthur Foundation documentary “I Learn America,” and Al Jazeera America. She has recently served as the Community Farm Manager for VINES based in Binghamton.

 10/19/21: Climate Change Overview

Slides available to view here.



9/21/21: iM3NY's lithium-ion battery mfg plant overview by Dr. Upreti



 5/18/21: The Importance of the American Chestnut


American Chestnut Tree, overcoming Chestnut blight, and other threats to U.S. forests will be discussed by Roy Hopke, SAF certified Consulting Forester. Roy Hopke gives a presentation on the importance of the American Chestnut tree, past and present efforts to develop a blight resistant American Chestnut, and other threats to U.S. forests, including invasive insects and climate change. Roy is a 1970 graduate of what is now the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry and Syracuse University. He has a wealth of experience regarding forests, including: logging research, helicopter logging, working as District wide county forester in Florida Division of Forestry for six counties, an Assistant Ranger for U.S. Forest Service in the Cherokee National Forest in Tennessee as well Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. While in the USFS, he "managed" the Gee Creek wilderness area, constructed part of a the John Muir National recreational trail, did some writing of compartment forest management prescriptions, managed reforestation operations, and managed youth and senior citizens (YACC,YCC and SCSEP) conservation projects, became a fire fighting crew boss and prescribed fire manager, as well as having managed a variety of recreation areas. He then returned to central NY where he really wanted to be worked 11 years as Lead Forester for Pomeroy Lumber. He has recently been working as a Consulting Forester and volunteered as District 7 Director for the NY Chapter of the American Chestnut Foundation. He is now transitioning to retirement

4/20/21: Upstream Thinking, Downstream Effects - How Community Implemented Stormwater Management Can Promote Healthier Waterways 

Waterman Center director, Christopher Audette discusses the impact of poor stormwater management at the community level, how conventional practices contribute to this impact, and describes sustainable alternative technologies using the Waterman Center’s ongoing NYS Green Innovation Grant Project as a case study.


3/16/21: Birds, Climate Change, and Renewable Energy

David Nicosia, National Weather Service (NOAA) Meteorologist, discussed bird migrations, weather patterns, vagrancy, possible effects of climate change and renewable energy on bird populations and bird adaptations to climate and land-use changes. The presentation was quite informative. 

See here for a copy of David Nicosia's slideshow from this presentation.  

Dave Nicosia, Warning Coordination Meteorologist, National Weather Service Binghamton
Dave grew up in Athens, PA and has had a life-long interest in weather and climate. He received both his B.S and M.S in Meteorology from Penn State. Dave started with the National Weather Service in 1991 in Michigan. He spent 3 years there before taking a forecaster position at the National Weather Service in State College, PA.  In August 1999, he took his position at the NWS in Binghamton as Warning Coordination Meteorologist where he remains today. Dave has a wealth of operational forecast experience which includes the Blizzard of 1996, the January 1996 flood, the major floods of 2004 and 2005, the record floods of 2006 and 2011 and the northeast Pa tornado outbreak of June 2018. Dave provided key briefings for public safety officials that save many lives during these record floods. For his work during the Flood of 2006, Dave was awarded the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s prestigious Maurice K. Goddard Award. Dave also has a keen interest in Climate and Climate Change. In 2008, Dave completed a graduate-level course in climatology from SUNY Cortland. In May 2010, Dave provided a training seminar for the National Weather Service Eastern Region on Climate Change.
Dave’s experience also includes hundreds of weather and climate-related training sessions and lectures for the following: FEMA’s Emergency Management Institute, the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, New York State Office of Emergency Management, New York State Emergency Management Association, Cornell University, SUNY Cortland, Penn State University, SUNY Environmental Science and Forestry Syracuse, and many local and county emergency management offices, the red cross, schools and other civic organizations.

Dave has been an avid birder since he was 11 years old, and is recognized as an expert!


2/19/21: Bluestone Wind Presentation by Chris Stanton

What was inadvertently missed, before recording was started, was the introduction by Valdi Weiderpass, and here is text:
'Thank you for joining us for our general membership meeting. Chris Stanton, Project Development Manager of Northland Power will give a presentation on the Bluestone Wind Project in the towns of Sanford and Windsor. This is a very important renewable energy project that has the capability of delivering power to 40,000 homes. Bluestone has been approved to move forward by the PSC and has been granted a 20 year PILOT by The Agency (IDA) of Broome County.
Three big reasons we need to transition to renewable energy as quickly as possible are to help save a habitable climate, to greatly reduce pollution of our environment including air and water from the use of fossil fuels, and to reduce the number of illnesses and deaths linked to fossil fuel pollution. About a week ago, a new report came out on a study by Harvard University in collaboration with three universities in the United Kingdom on the harms of fossil fuel related air pollution. They concluded that the use of fossil fuels results in 1 of every 5 yearly deaths worldwide in 2018, which is 8.7 million deaths due to fossil fuels, with 350,000 deaths in USA! According to an article in The Guardian, “Without fossil fuel emissions, the average life expectancy of the world’s population would increase by more than a year, while global economic and health costs would fall by about $2.9 trillion."
And those death numbers don’t include accidents related to fossil fuel use. There are safety risks from transport of fossil fuels, for example, from 2010 to 2018, a pipeline explosion occurred, on average, every 11 days in the U.S.
Those are just some of the many reasons we need to transition to renewable energy and that’s why we are grateful for Chris Stanton agreeing to give us a presentation on wind power.
Chris Stanton is a Project Development Manager for Northland Power, where he is the lead developer on the Bluestone Wind project in eastern Broome County and the High Bridge Wind project in Chenango county. Chris helped launch both projects under their previous owner, Calpine Corp. He lives in central Pennsylvania.'
Chris Stanton has provided the following answers to four questions, that he was unable to answer immediately during the Q & A session at end of his presentation. He consulted with his technical team and provided the following, 2/19/21:
Q1: What chemicals will be used for de-icing the blades?
A1: Northland to date has never used chemical de-icers at its onshore wind farms and we do not currently have any plans to do so at Bluestone. If any chemical de-icer were to be used in the future, it would be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and any applicable laws or regulations.
Q2: Owls tend to nest early. What will the tree clearing crews do if they come across an owl nest that is not listed as a threatened or endangered species?
A2: Our environmental monitor, EDR, is responsible for training our tree clearing contractors on spotting the nests of threatened and endangered species, and is on site each day to help the contractor identify all nests, including owl nests. The EDR on-site monitor will observe the following protocol for a suspected owl nest: (1) stop work within 500ft of the nest; (2) alert NY DEC to come observe the nest and provide instructions on next steps.
Q3: Will Northland commit to making the results from its post construction avian monitoring plan public?
A3: Yes. Once the report is no longer in draft form, and is finalized, Northland would be happy to share the data directly with the Delaware Otsego-Audubon Society or other interested parties.
Q4: Please provide the text from the Article 10 Certificate that states that Northland will drill me a new water well if mine is compromised at the same time as the project is being built.
A4: Bluestone Wind is responsible for drilling a new water well under Condition 45(e): “Should the NYSDOH-certified laboratory testing described in Conditions 44(c) and 44(d) conclude that the water supplied by an existing, active water supply well met federal and New York State standards for potable water prior to construction, but failed to meet such standards post-construction, the Certificate Holder shall cause a new water well to be constructed, in consultation with the property owner, at least 100 feet from collection lines and access roads, and at least 1,000 feet from wind turbines, as practicable given siting constraints and landowner preferences.” Note that a pre-construction test would need to have been performed. We are required, per Section 45(c), to conduct such a test in the event that the water well is located within 1,000ft of any blasting.



1/19/21: Lynda Spickard award to Adam Flint